The APA style (American Psychology Association) is used more frequently to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, reviewed according to 6thThe exit, the second impression of the APA manual, offers examples of the general APE research work format, quotes in the text, footnotes/footnotes and the reference page.Publication Manual of the American Association of Psychology, (6thed., 2Dakota del NortePress).
Use:This page reflects APA 6, which is now outdated.It keeps online until 2021, but is not updated.APA 7 page equivalentIt can be found here.
The APA style has a series of important rules for the use of author names as part of the author's data system.There are additional rules to cite indirect sources, electronic sources and sources without page numbers.
Cite Author the Authors
A work of two authors:Name to both authors in the signal phrase or on the supports every time the work cites.Use the word "and" among the names of the authors in the text and use the ampersand in the supports.
Wegener and Petty's research (1994) supports ...
(Wegener y Petty, 1994)
A work of three to five authors:List all authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses when the source enters for the first time.Use the word "and" among the names of the authors in the text and use the ampers and in parentheses.
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry & Harlow, 1993)
In later appointments, only use the first name of the first author, followed by "et al".In the signal phrase or on the supports.
(Kernis et al., 1993)
Inet al.GiftInI should not follow a period.
Six or more authors:Use the name of the first author, followed by et al.In the signal phrase or on the supports.
Harris et al.(2001) Argument ...
(Harris et al., 2001)
Unknown author:If the work has no author, he quotes the source in the signal phrase or uses the first or two words in the supports.The titles of the books and reports are shown in italics;The titles of articles, chapters and websites are on quotes.APA's style demands important words in titles for capital companies if they are written in the text (but not if they are written in reference lists).
Students who learn to format research ("use quotes", 2001).
use: In the rare case, the "anonymous" is used for the author as the author's name (Anonymous, 2001).Use the anonymous name as an author in the references list.
Organization as an author:If the author is an organization or government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the clips when you first enter the source.
Nach der American Psychological Association (2000), ...
If the organization has a known abbreviation, add the abbreviation between parentheses for the first time that the source is cited and only use the subsequent appointments abbreviation.
First appointment: (mothers against drunk driving [Madd], 2000)
Second cites: (Madd, 2000)
Two or more jobs on the same supports:If the appointment of your support contains two or more work, ask for it, as well as in the list of references (namely, alphabetics), which is separated by a separate half -colona.
(Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)
Two or more works of the same author in the same supports:If your support appointment contains two or more works by the same author, list the years of publication after the other with the early.
(Hoffa, 1956, 1962, 1975)
According to this pattern, several works of several authors can be contained in a clamp.Separate the sources of the authors with a point and coma, but consider that the names of the authors must be provided in the order that appears in the list of references, regardless of when their sources were published.
(Jones, 2010, 2018, in press; Smith, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006; Zepf, 2019)
Authors with the same surname:To avoid confusion, use the first initials with the last name.
(E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)
Two or more works by the same author in the same year:If you have two sources from the same author in the same year, use the letters (A, B, C) in the year to order the entries in the references list.
Berndt studies (1981a) illustrate that ...
Introductions, prediction, preliminary force and after clothes:If you quote an introduction, prologue, prologue or a subsequent word in the text, cites the corresponding author and the year as usual.
(Funk y Kolln, 1992)
Personal communication:For interviews, letters, emails and other communication with person, cites the name of the communicator, the fact that it was a personal message and the communication date.
(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).
A. P. Smith also said that many of his students had difficulties with the APA style (personal message, November 3, 2002).
Citing indirect sources
If you use a source cited in another source, call the original source in your signal letterhead.List the secondary source in its references list and enter the secondary source in the supports.
Johnson argued that ... (as in Smith, 2003, p. 102 cited).
Use:When mentioning the material in parentheses, place the appointment with a comma as indicated above.Also try to locate the original material and cite the original source.
If possible, cite an electronic document as in any other document using the author-Datum style.
Kenneth (2000) explained ...
Unknown author and unknown date:If no author or date is specified, use the title in your signal phrase or in the first or two titles in the supports and use the abbreviation "N.D."(For "without date").
Another study by students and research made decisions that students had successful in tutoring ("Tutoring and APA", N.D.).
Sources without page numbers
If you lack an electronic source, page numbers, you should try to include information that helps readers find the passage cited.If an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation "for". If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document contains headings, indicate the corresponding header and indicate the paragraph under this header.You can use in your browser to find all the passages you cited.
Nach Smith (1997), ... (mind on the subject section, Abs. 6).
Use:Never use the page numbers of the websites that you have exposed.Different computers print websites with different pages.
HeAPA publication manualDescribe how many different types of authors and content manufacturers cite.However, they can occasionally counteract the category of the source or the category of author of the author that the manual does not describe, and cannot be clear to do the best way to proceed.
In these cases, it is generally acceptable to apply the general principles of the APA appointment in the new type of source in a consistent and sensible way.To use that, it resembles the source you want to cite.For example,Guidelines for normal computer software.
It is also possible that you want to investigate whether a third -party suppliers organization has instructed the appointment of this type of source.For example, Norquest College offers an exampleGuidelines for citing indigenous knowledge and knowledge carriers- A category of author that is not shown in whichWhat a manualIn such cases, it is a good idea to ask your instructor or superior if the use of the third party contribution guidelines poses problems.